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1. Applied Heat Flux Distribution and Time Response Effects on Cone Calorimeter Characterization of a Commercial Flexible Polyurethane Foam. Pitts, William M. Fire Technology vol. 50 issue 3 May 2014. p. 635 - 672

  The burning behavior of a commercial flexible polyurethane foam has been studied… (more)

Keywords: Toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1007/s10694-011-0235-8. ISSN: 0015-2684.

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2. Synthesis and molecular characterization of chitosan based polyurethane elastomers using aromatic diisocyanate. Zia, K.M.; Anjum, S.; Zuber, M.; Mujahid, M.; Jamil, T. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules vol. 66 May, 2014. p. 26-32

 The present research work was performed to synthesize a new series of chitosan… (more)

Keywords: 2,4-Toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.01.073. ISSN: 0141-8130.

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3. Effect of Ipomea carnea Jacq. flowers on hematological changes in toluene diisocyanate-induced inflammation in Wistar rats. Smita, Jain; Patil, U.K. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines vol. 12 issue 3 March, 2014. p. 161-166

  Aim To investigate the active chloroform fraction of the ethanol extract of… (more)

Keywords: Toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/S1875-5364(14)60027-3. ISSN: 1875-5364.

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4. Development of sandwich ELISAs for the detection of aromatic diisocyanate adducts. Lemons, A.R.; Bledsoe, T.A.; Siegel, P.D.; Beezhold, D.H.; Green, B.J. Journal of Immunological Methods vol. 397 issue 1-2 November 29, 2013. p. 66-70

 Diisocyanates (dNCOs) are highly reactive low molecular weight chemicals commonly used in the… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2013.08.015. ISSN: 0022-1759.

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5. Connecting glutathione with immune responses to occupational methylene diphenyl diisocyanate exposure. Wisnewski, Adam V.; Liu, Jian; Redlich, Carrie A. Chemico-Biological Interactions vol. 205 issue 1 September 5, 2013. p. 38-45

 Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is among the leading chemical causes of occupational asthma… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2013.06.005. ISSN: 0009-2797.

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6. Contact allergy to isocyanates after accidental spillage. Engfeldt, Malin; Pontén, Ann. Contact Dermatitis vol. 69 issue 2 August 2013. p. 122-124

Keywords: 2,4-toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1111/cod.12071. ISSN: 0105-1873.

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7. The use of renewable feedstock in UV-curable materials - A new age for polymers and green chemistry. Fertier, L.; Koleilat, H.; Stemmelen, M.; Giani, O.; Joly-Duhamel, C.; Lapinte, V.; Robin, J.J. Progress in Polymer Science vol. 38 issue 6 June, 2013. p. 932-962

 This review aims to cover the state of the art of renewable feedstock… (more)

Keywords: Toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2012.12.002. ISSN: 0079-6700.

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8. Molecular determinants of humoral immune specificity for the occupational allergen, methylene diphenyl diisocyanate. Wisnewski, A.V.; Liu, J. Molecular Immunology vol. 54 issue 2 June, 2013. p. 233-237

 Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), a low molecular weight chemical important for producing polyurethane… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2012.11.017. ISSN: 0161-5890.

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9. Toluene Diisocyanate Emission to Air and Migration to a Surface from a Flexible Polyurethane Foam. Vangronsveld, Erik; Berckmans, Steven; Spence, Mark. Annals Of Occupational Hygiene vol. 57 issue 5 June 2013. p. 650-661

 Flexible polyurethane foam (FPF) is produced from the reaction of toluene (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/mes105. ISSN: 0003-4878.

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10. Comparison of Solvent/Derivatization Agent Systems for Determination of Extractable Toluene Diisocyanate from Flexible Polyurethane Foam. Vangronsveld, Erik; Berckmans, Steven; Spence, Mark. Annals Of Occupational Hygiene vol. 57 issue 5 June 2013. p. 640-649

 Flexible polyurethane foam (FPF) is produced from the reaction of toluene (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/mes093. ISSN: 0003-4878.

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11. The clinical and immunomodulatory effects of green soybean extracts. Katayanagi, Yuki; Yasui, Kensuke; Ikemoto, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Kyoko; Fukutomi, Ryuta; Isemura, Mamoru; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Imai, Shinjiro. Food Chemistry vol. 138 issue 4 June 15, 2013. p. 2300-2305

 The present study was performed to investigate the immune-modulating activities of extracts from… (more)

Keywords: 2,4-toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.12.014. ISSN: 0308-8146.

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12. Mechanism of E-cadherin redistribution in bronchial airway epithelial cells in a TDI-induced asthma model. Song, J.; Zhao, H.; Dong, H.; Zhang, D.; Zou, M.; Tang, H.; Liu, L.; Liang, Z.; Lv, Y.; Zou, F.; Cai, S. Toxicology Letters vol. 220 issue 1 June 20, 2013. p. 8-14

 E-cadherin (epithelial cadherin), a transmembrane protein, provides essential architecture and immunological function to… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.03.033. ISSN: 0378-4274.

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13. Modeling formation and distribution of toluene-2,4-diamine (TDA) after spillage of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) into a river. Schupp, T. Journal of Hazardous Materials vol. 252-253 May 15, 2013. p. 70-76

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a large volume chemical used for the… (more)

Keywords: Toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.02.031. ISSN: 0304-3894.

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14. Reactivity of chemical respiratory allergens in the Peroxidase Peptide Reactivity Assay. Lalko, J.F.; Dearman, R.J.; Gerberick, G.F.; Troutman, J.A.; Api, A.M.; Kimber, I. Toxicology in Vitro vol. 27 issue 2 March, 2013. p. 651-661

 Sensitizing chemicals are commonly associated primarily with either skin or respiratory sensitization. In… (more)

Keywords: 2,4/2,6-toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2012.10.016. ISSN: 0887-2333.

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15. Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) vapor reactivity with glutathione and subsequent transfer to human albumin. Wisnewski, Adam V.; Mhike, Morgen; Hettick, Justin M.; Liu, Jian; Siegel, Paul D. Toxicology in Vitro vol. 27 issue 2 March, 2013. p. 662-671

 IntroductionAirway fluid glutathione (GSH) reactivity with inhaled vapors of diisocyanate, a common occupational… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2012.11.013. ISSN: 0887-2333.

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16. Thermal stability of polyurethane materials based on castor oil as polyol component. Ristić, Ivan S.; Bjelović, Zoran D.; Holló, Berta; Mészáros Szécsényi, Katalin; Budinski-Simendić, Jaroslava; Lazić, Nada; Kićanović, Miodrag. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry vol. 111 issue 2 February 2013. p. 1083 - 1091

 Preparation of the series of polyurethane elastomers and its nanocomposites from castor oil… (more)

Keywords: Toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1007/s10973-012-2497-x. ISSN: 1388-6150.

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17. A recycling model of excess toluene diisocyanate isomers in the preparation of polyurethane prepolymer. He, Yong; Zhang, Xinya; Zhang, Xinfang; Huang, Hong; Chang, Jie; Chen, Huanqin. Journal of Applied Polymer Science vol. 127 issue 3 5 February 2013. p. 2176-2183

  Reaction kinetics of dropwise addition of trimethylolpropane (TMP) to toluene (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1002/app.37779. ISSN: 0021-8995.

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18. Fabrication of dual-responsive cellulose-based membrane via simplified surface-initiated ATRP. Qiu, X.; Ren, X.; Hu, S. Carbohydrate Polymers vol. 92 issue 2 February 15, 2013. p. 1887-1895

 An independently temperature- and pH-responsive membrane was developed by simultaneously grafting poly(N-isopropylacryamide) (PNIPAAm)… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.11.080. ISSN: 0144-8617.

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19. Risk assessment for consumer exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) derived from polyurethane flexible foam. Arnold, Scott M.; Collins, Michael A.; Graham, Cynthia; Jolly, Athena T.; Parod, Ralph J.; Poole, Alan; Schupp, Thomas; Shiotsuka, Ronald N.; Woolhiser, Michael R. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology vol. 64 issue 3 December, 2012. p. 504-515

 Polyurethanes (PU) are polymers made from diisocyanates and polyols for a variety of… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate; Toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.07.006. ISSN: 0273-2300.

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20. Structural investigations of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and trimethylolpropane (TMP)-based polyurethane prepolymer. He, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, X.; Huang, H.; Chang, J.; Chen, H. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry vol. 18 issue 5 September 25, 2012. p. 1620-1627

 Polyurethane prepolymer prepared from nonequivalent amounts of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) over… (more)

Keywords: Toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.jiec.2012.02.023. ISSN: 1226-086X.

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21. Occupational contact allergy to monomeric isocyanates. Aalto‐Korte, Kristiina; Suuronen, Katri; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks‐Eckerman, Maj‐Len; Jolanki, Riitta. Contact Dermatitis vol. 67 issue 2 August 2012. p. 78-88

  Background. The monomeric isocyanates diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI),… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0536.2011.02049.x. ISSN: 0105-1873.

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22. Modified cellulose films with controlled permeatability and biodegradability by crosslinking with toluene diisocyanate under homogeneous conditions. Qiu, X.; Tao, S.; Ren, X.; Hu, S. Carbohydrate Polymers vol. 88 issue 4 May 16, 2012. p. 1272-1280

 Microcrystalline cellulose was modified by crosslinking with toluene diisocyanate under homogeneous… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.02.007. ISSN: 0144-8617.

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23. Vapor conjugation of toluene diisocyanate to specific lysines of human albumin. Hettick, Justin M.; Siegel, Paul D.; Green, Brett J.; Liu, Jian; Wisnewski, Adam V. Analytical Biochemistry vol. 421 issue 2 February 15, 2012. p. 706-711

 Exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI), an industrially important crosslinking agent used… (more)

Keywords: Toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2011.12.013. ISSN: 0003-2697.

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24. Comparative analysis of aromatic diisocyanate conjugation to human albumin utilizing multiplexed tandem mass spectrometry. Hettick, J.M.; Siegel, P.D. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry vol. 309 January 1, 2012. p. 168-175

 Diisocyanates are industrially important chemicals that serve as polymerizing agents in a variety… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2011.09.015. ISSN: 1387-3806.

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25. Serum cytokines markers in toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma. Kim, Joo-Hee; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Choi, Gil-Soon; Kim, Hyun-Young; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim. Respiratory Medicine vol. 105 issue 7 July, 2011. p. 1091-1094

 SummaryBackgroundToluene diisocyante-induced occupational asthma (TDI-OA) is an inflammatory disease of airway, composing inflammatory… (more)

Keywords: Toluene diisocyanate (TDI)

DOI: 10.1016/j.rmed.2011.03.005. ISSN: 0954-6111.

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26. Leukocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-reduced oxidase is required for isocyanate-induced lung inflammation. Liu, Si-Yen; Wang, Wei-Zhi; Yen, Chia-Liang; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Yang, Pei-Wen; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Ho, Chun-Yi; Shieh, Chi-Chang. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology vol. 127 issue 4 April, 2011. p. 1014-1023

 BackgroundIsocyanates are low-molecular-weight compounds noted for inducing occupational and environmental asthma. Isocyanate-induced lung… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate; Toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2010.12.008. ISSN: 0091-6749.

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27. Chemical reactivity measurements: Potential for characterization of respiratory chemical allergens. Lalko, Jon F.; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J.; Gerberick, G. Frank; Sarlo, Katherine; Api, Anne Marie. Toxicology in Vitro vol. 25 issue 2 March, 2011. p. 433-445

 Allergic diseases of the skin and respiratory tract resulting from exposure to low… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.11.007. ISSN: 0887-2333.

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28. Chemical modification of starch by reactive extrusion. Moad, G. Progress in Polymer Science vol. 36 issue 2 February, 2011. p. 218-237

 Processes for chemical transformation of starch by extrusion processing (reactive extrusion, REX) are… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2010.11.002. ISSN: 0079-6700.

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29. Dermal uptake and excretion of ^1^4C-toluene diisocyante (TDI) and ^1^4C-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in male rats. Clinical signs and histopathology following dermal exposure of male rats to TDI. Hoffmann, H.D.; Leibold, E.; Ehnes, C.; Fabian, E.; Landsiedel, R.; A.Gamer; Poole, A. Toxicology Letters vol. 199 issue 3 December 15, 2010. p. 364-371

 Polyurethanes (PU) are polymers made with diisocyanates such as MDI (4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate)… (more)

Keywords: 2,4-Toluene diisocyanate; 2,6-Toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.09.021. ISSN: 0378-4274.

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30. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) regulates haem oxygenase-1/ferritin expression: implications for toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma. Kim, S.-H.; Choi, G.-S.; Ye, Y.-M.; Jou, I.; Park, H.-S.; Park, S. M. Clinical & Experimental Immunology vol. 160 issue 3 June 2010. p. 489-497

  Summary Diisocyanate is a leading cause of occupational asthma (OA). Diisocyanate-induced OA… (more)

Keywords: toluene diisocyanate

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2010.04118.x. ISSN: 0009-9104.

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